Anne Buot

Postdoctoral researcher in collaboration with Brian Lau’s team. Previously at the Departments of Neuroscience and Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, USA

Karim N’Diaye

Scientific interests: Metacognition, introspection & self-monitoring; Pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders linked to basal ganglia dysfunctions, in particular compulsive behaviors (OCD); Therapeutical mechanisms in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-Based Therapy. Evolutionary cognitive neuroscience of social processes and emotions; Techniques used: Human behavioral experiments; Brain Imaging: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) & Functional MRI; Human electrophysiology: electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), local field potentials (LFP). Keywords: metacognition, emotion, fMRI, deep brain stimulation, working memory, prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia Scientific agenda My research explores the neurocognitive processes involved in self-representation and self-evaluation through a wide range of techniques and approaches, focusing in particular on the neural bases of metacognition, i.e., the psychological processes that enable one to monitor and regulate one’s own cognitive activity, e.g. the confidence one has in a decision just-made and/or the action one may take to assuage one’s doubts. Despite a wealth of behavioral psychology and psychophysics research, the brain mechanisms participating to metacognition have only recently garnered interest (Fleming et al., 2012; Dehaene, 2011). Concurrently, metacognitive processes have also been implicated in psychopathological models of mental disorders (Wells, 1995) and in evolutionary theory of human cognition (Carruthers, 2008). I explore these issues through experimental studies combining behavioral and neurofunctional methodologies (fMRI, local field potentials, EEG/MEG) in healthy participants as well as neurological and psychiatric patients treated with deep-brain stimulation or other types of interventions (e.g. psychotherapy). In my scientific work, I primarily focus on the role of cortical regions (encompassing the anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal, ventro-medial and rostral prefrontal cortices) along with the basal ganglia for these structures pertain to functional cortico-subcortical loops that have been associated with performance-monitoring and behavioral control. One central issue pertains to the mechanisms through which metacognitive information might be derived from ongoing neural activity to allow flexible behavior and adaptive decision-making, in laboratory tasks – e.g. when deciding if enough sensory evidence has been collected to decide whether one is seeing leftward or rightward motion in a random dot displays – as well as in more ecological experimental settings, such as when confronting self-confidence with external sources of evidence (from feedback or from other individuals). With the BEBG team, I take benefit of clinical trials conducted around deep-brain stimulation to explore possible dysfunctions of metacognitive processes and their neuro-behavioral correlates in neuropsychiatric disorders but also to test the causal role of targeted structures, e.g. the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Obsessive-compulsive disorder which is characterized by “pathological doubt” thus represents a potent psychopathological model. For example, I developed a perceptual decision task which incorporates confidence-ratings that are used to derive quantitative measures of introspective monitoring in OCD patients over the course of a clinical-trial of STN-DBS. This allows assessing the possible role of dysfunctional metacognition in the etiology of the disease and its recovering through subthalamic stimulation. This line of research also participate in the identification of transnosographic behavioral phenotypes, such as compulsivity (seen in OCD but also in drug addiction) that appears associated with blunted introspective awareness of one’s motivational processes. I also participate to translational […]

Margot Morgiève

Keywords Sociology of science, citizen science, patient association, mental disability compensation, clinical research, evaluation of psychotherapies, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, neuroscience. Resume I conducted a project “Institution-Citizen Partnership for Research and Innovation” (PICRI) in collaboration between BEBG team and the french Association of people suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and their relatives (AFTOC). I have set up, coordinated and supervised a longitudinal research design to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative treatment (using computerized tools) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for patients with OCD verification (which is the subject of a scientific article). I was the scientist in charge of this clinical trial on changes in brain activity in patients with OCD CBT. I also conducted an online survey to study the representations that have OCD patients, relatives, health professionals and the general public (the survey is the subject of a book chapter). I did a bi-disciplinary thesis of sociology of  science whose objective was to report the factory process of  scientific knowledge through an ethnographic approach and observation of a team of “big neuroscientists” which was also the subject of an article. I’m currently running a project in partnership with the research center of medicine, science, health, mental health, society (Cermes3-CNRS) and the Brain and Spine Institute (ICM). Our project is anchored in a process that has been developed in recent years, due to sociological, legislative and technological developments, and that is seeking solutions to improve the lives of people with OCD not only by medical means referred to therapeutic, but by all means to compensate disability and quality of life impairments generated by the disorder. The aim is to exploit the potential of the major innovations in the field of localized connected mobile computing, that is to say, the “smartphones”, the “Smarthomes” and connected objects. Our project is registered in a broader movement to engage users or future users of technology solutions in the design of these solutions, right from the earliest stages of design. This movement is generally designated by the terms of participatory design, participatory innovation, open innovation, crowdsourcing … To support this process participatory innovation we have chosen to implement this platform available on the Web to collect, organize, synthesize, present, monitor and develop the ideas proposed by all persons affected by OCD problem (people with first OCD but also their relatives, carers -psychiatres, psychologists, neurologists, occupational therapists …, researchers, social workers …). At the same time, we are conducting ethnographic and anthropological monographs at the home of people with OCD and their families. Finally, we develop smartphone apps of Ecological Momentary Assesment (EMA) to allow people with OCD self-assessment in a perspective of empowerment, and improvement of reflective understanding of their problems, and practitioners to access to contextualized information and so far to adapt their therapeutic strategies. Grants & Funding 2015 Fondation de l’Avenir, Project “m-TOC : Integration of smartphones in the monitoring of obsessive-compulsive disorder” 2014 Carnot Institutes: funding for the maturation of valuable innovations. 2013 Institute of Public Health Research (IRESP) “Disability and […]

Philippe Domenech

I am assistant professor in psychiatry in the department of functional neurosurgery of Henri Mondor teaching hospital in Paris. I specialize in severe and treatment refractory obsessive compulsive disorder, Parkinson disease and deep brain stimulation. I study decision-making processes and their contextual regulation. I’m applying model-based and model-free analytic methods to fMRI, EEG and S-EEG data to establish an algorithmic mapping of the Human brain engaged in simple decisions. I’m also using pharmacological manipulations and deep brain stimulation to investigate the neural circuitry underpinning the decision-making process. More recently, I have been trying to extend this approch to executive functions such as exploration/exploitation tradeoff. Previously, I did a PhD in Cognitive Neurosciences under Jean-Claude Dreher at the Centre de Neuroscience Cognitive (CNRS) in Lyon and obtained a MD in psychiatry from Lyon Est University. Then, I have worked for three years as a post-doc researcher in Etienne Koechlin’s Lab (ENS/INSERM) which is based at the “Ecole Normale Superieure“.

Eric Burguière

Eric Burguière is working with mouse models of repetitive behaviors in the BEBG team. During his PhD thesis (obtained from Collège de France / Sorbonne University in December 2006), he first learned to study and analyze mutant mice behavior by designing paradigms to study motor adaptation. Then, during his post-doctoral period in the Graybiel laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2007-2012), he studied mouse models of disorders affecting motor execution as Parkinson disease and OCD-spectrum disorder. He use and develops different methodology such as  multi-unit electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics technology to better probe and understand the pathophysiology of these disorders (Burguiere et al., Science, 2013). He is currently a principal investigator at the Brain and Spine Institute (ICM) in Paris and supervise several project which aim at understanding the neurophysiological basis of repetitive behaviors.   5 Main recent publications E. Burguière, P. Monteiro, L. Mallet, G. Feng G, A.M. Graybiel Striatal circuits, habits, and implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Curr Opin Neurobiol. (2015) Feb;30:59-65. C. Schreiweis*, U. Bornschein*, E. Burguière, …, S. Pääbo, W. Enard W§, A.M. Graybiel§. Humanized Foxp2 accelerates learning by enhancing transitions from declarative to procedural performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2014) Sep 30;111(39):14253-8. E. Burguière, P. Monteiro, G. Feng, AM. Graybiel. Optogenetic Stimulation of Lateral Orbitofronto-Striatal Pathway Suppresses Compulsive Behaviors. Science. (2013) Jun 7;340(6137):1243-6. E. Burguière, A. Arabo, F. Jarlier, C. I. De Zeeuw, L. Rondi-Reig. Role of the cerebellar cortex in conditioned goal-directed behavior. J Neurosci. (2010) Oct;30(40):13265-13271. E. Burguière, A. Arleo, C.I. De Zeeuw, A. Berthoz, L. Rondi-Reig. Spatial navigation impairment in mice lacking LTD: a motor adaptation deficit? Nat Neurosci. (2005) Oct;8(10):1292-4.   For the complete list please see: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=burguiere+e   Prizes 2014 Prize attributed by French Psychiatry Society for the 3rd best scientific article of the year. 2007 Prize attributed by French Neuroscience Society for the best Neuroscience Thesis of the year. 2005 Prize attributed by Lilly Institute for the PhD work accomplished.   Awards 2013 Awarded by FRM Foundation for 2 years of funding as a research scientist. 2012 Awarded by FondaMental Foundation for a 1 year postdoctoral fellowship. 2010 Awarded by Simons Foundation for a 2 years postdoctoral fellowship. 2007 Awarded by EMBO for a 2 years postdoctoral fellowship. 2006 Awarded by FENS (2004) and MCCS (2006) to attend the FENS forums. Awarded by CELEST program to attend the ICCNS ’06 in Boston. 2004 Awarded by Hertie-Institute to attend a conference in Tuebigen. Awarded by Ile de France Council to collaborate with IRRCS 2002 Awarded by University Paris 6 for pursuing a 3 years PhD project.   Selected Conference Speaker Invitations (last 5 years) 2015 Inaugural conference for the “One day in the heart of the Parisians hospitals” event, Paris. Conference at the Annual Cerebrovascular Disease Society meeting, Paris. 2014 Inaugural lecture of the French Association for Biological Psychiatry meeting (AFPBN), Paris. Conference in Pierre et Marie Curie University (Paris 6), invited by P. Faure, Paris. Conference at Psychiatric Disease and Animal Models symposium, Paris 8 University, […]

Jérôme Yelnik

Position: Team leader in Inserm Research Unit U679: Anatomie, physiologie et thérapeutique expérimentale chez l’animal : 1996-2008 Team leader, Behavior, Emotion and Basal Ganglia 2009 Education: MD thesis at CHU Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, University Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, 1976. Additional Training: Computer-assisted three-dimensional analysis of neuronal structure. Institut d’Anatomie de Lausanne (Suisse), Professeur H. Van der Loos, 1979 Professional experience: Full-time Research Director at INSERM U679, Hospital de la Salpêtrière, Paris: since 2004 Full-time Research Director at INSERM U289, Hospital de la Salpêtrière, Paris: 1996-2004 Full-time Research Director at INSERM U106, Hospital de la Salpêtrière, Paris: 1992-1996 Full-time researcher at INSERM U3, Hospital de la Salpêtrière, Paris: 1981-1992 University teaching activities: Master Neuroscience Université Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie: “Anatomie Fonctionnelle des Ganglions de la Base” Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan Université Paris XI – Préparation à l’agrégation: “Phylogenèse, ontogenèse et anatomie du système nerveux central” et “Motricité” Master 1 Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan Université Paris XI: “Anatomie Fonctionnelle des Ganglions de la Base” Master Neuroscience Cognitives Université Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie : “ Ganglions de la Base et Contrôle Moteur” Expertise fields: Neuroanatomy, primate, Clinical research, Basal Ganglia, Parkinson Boards, learned societies, memberships, scientific expertise: Referee: Brain, Journal of Comparative. Neurology, Journal of Neuroscience Methods, Journal of Neurosurgery., Neuroimage Member of Société des Neurosciences, International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS), Club des Ganglions de la Base, Club des Mouvements Anormaux President of the Regional Ethic Committee for Animal Experiment (Ile de France n°3) Funding: Grant ANR 2006 Neurosciences, Neurologie et Psychiatrie N° ANR-06-NEURO-006-01 BG EMO/PATH 2006-2010